HTML5

(8 minutes of reading) You have certainly heard of the HTML language, which is the basis for building web pages. Do you want to know more about this subject and delve deeper into the new HTML 5 version?

HTML5

(8 minutes of reading)


HTML5 is the new version of HTML. But before we talk about this new version, let's talk a little about the history of HTML?


HTML

With the emergence of the internet, it was necessary to create a language that could be understood by different access points. Thus, Tim Berners-Lee developed HTML. In the 1990s, when the browser developed by Marc Andreessen, Mosaic, became popular, HTML gained strength and was adopted by other developers and browser manufacturers, sharing the same conventions.

HTML is an abbreviation of Hypertext Markup Language, it is the language used for publishing content (text, images, videos, audio, etc.) on the web.

HTML is based on the concept of hypertext, that is, sets of elements connected by connections, which can be words, images, videos, audio, documents, etc. that when connected, form a large information network. The connection made in a hypertext is something unforeseen that allows the communication of data, organizing knowledge and storing related information.

Between 1993 and 1995, new versions appeared (HTML+, HTML 2.0, HTML 3.0) where several changes were proposed to enrich the possibilities of the language, but it was still not treated as a standard. Only in 1997, the W3C working group, worked on version 3.2, causing it to be treated as common practice.

In 2004, the WHATWG (Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group) was founded by developers from companies such as Mozilla, Apple, and Opera, where the work of writing the new version of HTML, HTML5, began.


HTML5 – WHAT IS IT?

As stated at the beginning of the text, HTML5 is the new version of HTML.

HTML5 is a hypertext markup language that presents and structures web content, and this new standard is for HTML, XHTML, and HTML Dom.

HTML 5 allows adding new elements and functions, such as video and audio tags and canvas elements. And its main objective is to facilitate the manipulation of its elements, making it possible to modify the characteristics of objects in a non-intrusive way, making this explicit for the end user.

If we compare HTML5 with its predecessors, we notice that it has a series of additional features, such as:

1) Support for offline media storage;

2) Element of more specific contents, such as footer, header, navigation;

3) Simpler doctype;

4) Audio and video embedding support.

Another interesting feature of HTML5 is that it provides tools for CSS, Cascading Style Sheets, (to know more about CSS read our article), and JavaScript (read our text to know more about JS) do their job in the best possible way, so the site manages to be light and functional.

In addition to the code in HTML5 being written differently, the organization of the page is also different. It became more semantic and with less code, increasing interactivity without the need to install plug-ins that often-caused loss of performance. The code has already become interpolable, that is, it is ready for future devices, facilitating the reuse of information in different ways.


HTML5 STRUCTURES

The basic structure of HTML was maintained in HTML5, the only change was in the doctype.

The purpose of HTML5 is to improve the web experience for its end users as well as the devs. Its greatest quality is that it now has high-level audio and video support, which did not exist in previous versions.

Now we list other differences between HTML and HTML5 versions.

1) SVG (scalabel vector graphics) – canvas and other vector graphics are supported in HTML5, while in HTML the use of vector graphics was only possible if used in conjunction with different technologies, such as: Flash, VML, Silverlight, etc.

2) HTML5 uses application cached web SQL database for temporary storage of data, meanwhile, HTML only uses browser cache.

3) HTML5 is not based on SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), allowing it to have improved parsing rules, which provide better compatibility.

4) In HTML5, MathML inline and SVG can be used in text, this was not possible in HTML.

5) Some elements that were left out in HTML5 are: isindex, noframes, acronym, applet, basefont, dir, font, frame, frameset, big, center, strike and tt.

6) HTML5 supports new types of form controls like dates and times, email, number, range, TEL, URL, search, etc.


NEW ELEMENTS IN HTML5

Many elements of version 4.0.1 were deleted in version 5, some because they were never used, others because they were obsolete and, still, those that were used improperly. The new version brings innovations that provide the user with a better structure, design, and multimedia content.

The new features in version 5 are directly linked to the need for independent support for new multimedia content formats, new semantic features, and accessibility.

Among them we highlight the following:

1) Inclusion of the canvas that allows you to draw graphics on a web page. In the previous version, this task was performed using external plugins. With this, it is possible, via JavaScript, to control all pixels, in addition to drawing various graphic elements, such as circle, rectangle, ellipse, line, text, images, etc.

2) Inclusion of video and audio elements for multimedia playback. So once again there is integration of external plugins. With this inclusion of tags, HTML5 supports audio and video playback without the need to use external mechanisms.

3) Better support for local storage, HTML5 offers two new objects for storing data locally: SessionStorage, which stores data during an active session, and LocalStorage, which stores data without a time limit.

4) Inclusion of new elements of specific content, since many elements of version 4.0.1 were excluded from the new version, which brings new elements.

5) Inclusion of new form controls to make life easier for devs, unlike version 4.0.1, which had a scarce amount of form controls. Only the input element remained, but it gained new values for the type attribute, allowing greater control over data entry by the user.

6) Full CSS3 support. With this integration, web pages can receive the most varied types of styles such as shadows in texts and frames, transition effects, frame with rounded corners and several new features that CSS3 offers.


CONCLUSION

As previously mentioned, HTML5 comes with many new features, from video and audio incorporation to the use of the canvas element. The markup language also offers multiple new elements, bringing better compatibility with improved parsing rules.

Therefore, it is essential that programmers learn about HTML5 as soon as possible so that they can maximize the potential of modern browsers.


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